What are pyrogens in pharmacy? A pyrogen is a substance that causes fever after intravenous administration or inhalation. Gram negative endotoxins are the most important pyrogens to pharmaceutical laboratories.
What is a pyrogen test?
Pyrogen test is performed to check the presence or absence of pyrogens in all aqueous parenterals. Rabbits are used to perform the test because their body temperature increases when pyrogen is introduced by the parenteral route. For this test, three healthy rabbits are selected each weighing at least 1.5 kg.
How are pyrogens formed?
protein and polysaccharide substances called pyrogens, released either from bacteria or viruses or from destroyed cells of the body, are capable of raising the thermostat and causing a rise in body temperature. Fever is a highly significant indicator of disease.
What is pyrogen endotoxin?
ENDOTOXIN AND OTHER PYROGENS
Pyrogens are substances that can produce a fever. The most common pyrogens are endotoxins, which are lipopolysaccharides (LPS) produced by Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli. The limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test is used to detect endotoxins.
What is in vitro pyrogen test?
In this study, we show that the in vitro pyrogen test (IPT), which measures the release of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1beta in fresh or cryopreserved human whole blood, can be used to assess the pyrogenic contamination of implantable medical devices.
Related guide for What Are Pyrogens In Pharmacy?
Are Pyrogens and endotoxins the same?
Endotoxins are an important type of pyrogens. The key difference between endotoxin and pyrogen is that endotoxin is a lipopolysaccharide found in the outer membrane of gram negative bacteria while pyrogen is a polypeptide or polysaccharide which induces fever when released into circulation.
What are examples of Exotoxins?
(Science: protein) toxin released from gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria as opposed to endotoxins that form part of the cell wall. Examples are cholera, pertussis and diphtheria toxins. Usually specific and highly toxic.
Which part of the pyrogens elevate body temperature?
Temperature is ultimately regulated in the hypothalamus. A trigger of the fever, called a pyrogen, causes a release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). PGE2 then acts on the hypothalamus, which raises the temperature set point so that the body temperature increases through heat generation and vasoconstriction.
What are exogenous pyrogens?
Exogenous pyrogens are substances that originate outside the body and that are capa- ble of inducing interleukins. ● Endogenous pyrogens are substances that originate inside the body and that are ca- pable of inducing fever by acting on the hypothalamic thermoregulatory center.
What does the pyrogen test measure?
The test methods measure cytokine levels (either IL-1-beta or IL-6) from human blood cells or a human monocytoid cell line. Increased cytokine release is used as a biomarker of a pyrogenic response.
What produces exotoxin A?
Exotoxin A is an extracellular enzyme that is produced by most clinical strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is a single-chain polypeptide (molecular weight, 71,000) with A and B fragments that mediate enzymatic and cell-binding functions, respectively.
Where is an endotoxin produced?
Endotoxin, one of the components of the outer wall of gram-negative bacteria, is released by the microbiota in the gut and is directly introduced into the liver via portal blood.
Are endotoxins secreted from the cell?
Both are potentially hazardous to cell cultures. Exotoxins are toxic substances, usually proteins, secreted by bacteria and released outside the cell. Whereas endotoxins are bacterial toxins consisting of lipids that are located within a cell wall of the bacteria.